Old Testament

 

This website is dedicated to research and discussion for the old testament of the Bible.

Navigate the old testament books below for direct links to the content or read the history of the old testament below

The Old Testament is a Christian term for religious writings of ancient Israel, which was sacred to the Jews and Christians. and a number of these writings vary greatly between different religions, and Protestants, who accept only 39 books, Catholic, Orthodox, Coptic and etiopskitsarkvi identify a much larger collection.

Can be divided into books to the Bible, which tells how God chose Israel to be the chosen people, and history books, tells the story of Israel from the invasion of Canaan, and opening their own exile in Babylon, and poetic, and “wisdom” in the books that deal and warned the different forms, with issues of good and evil in the world, and the biblical books of the prophets of the consequences of moving away from God. For Jews who are the original authors and readers, these books have the unique story of his relationship with God, but the widespread nature of the Christian missionary from the beginning of the Christian faith to see the Old Testament as a preparation for the New Testament.

Old Testament Hebrew Bible Composition

The first five books – Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers and Deuteronomy the book – to make up pentateuch, Israel has created for the story of Moses’ death. Today, few scholars in the Persian period (538-332 BC), without a doubt that it has now arrived in the form, and its author, who is currently controlled by Temple the book of Joshua, Judges, Samuel Seoul elite returnees and the King in exile, the history of Israel the formation of the conquest of Canaan after the fall of Jerusalem, a single work (so-called “Deuteronomistic History”), as the 6th century origins in the Babylonian exile, a wide consensus among experts two record books and pentateuch Deuteronomistic History and the 4 BC , covering the same material to date.

About half the contents of the entire history of the Old Testament books. The rest of the prophets – Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, Daniel, and 12 “minor prophets” – written between 8 and 6 th century, with the exception of Jonah and Daniel, that is, after and “wisdom” and other books – Job, Proverbs, and similar books – from the 5th century BC to the second or first dates, and the Psalms.

Hebrew Themes

God is consistently described that created the world and directs its history. He did not, however, consistent with the only God who is there – apparently the only developed monotheism at the time of the Babylonian exile in the 6th century BC. Nevertheless, he is always described only God whom Israel is to worship, and a large part of the historic part of the Old Testament is about Israel’s ongoing struggle between God and the gods of Canaan, for the loyalty of the Israelites. Nonetheless, both Jews and Christians have always interpreted the Bible to strengthen the unity of God.

The Old Testament also emphasizes the special relationship with God and God’s chosen people, Israel. This relationship is expressed in the biblical covenant ((contract) between the transmitted Moses. The law codes of books such as Exodus and Deuteronomy in particular, are the terms of the contract from the Israeli side, on God’s side, he vows to be a special protector of Israel and supporter.

Other themes of the Old Testament are the salvation, redemption, judgments, obedience and disobedience, faith and loyalty, for example. Size is a strong emphasis on ethics, and ritual purity, both of which are God’s requirements, although some of the prophets and the wisdom of the authors seem to question this, saying that God demands of social justice in purity, and perhaps not even care about cleanliness at all. The Old Testament moral code enjoins justice, intervention on behalf of the vulnerable, those in power and duty to the jurisdiction of righteousness. It denies the murder, bribery and corruption, fraudulent trading, and many of the sexual misdemeanors. All morality is traced back to a God who is the source of all goodness.

The question of evil plays a large part of the Old Testament. The problem in front of the Old Testament writers was that the good God has been the root cause of that catastrophe (meaning, in particular, but not limited to, the Babylonian exile), his people. The theme is played, with many variations, in books as different as the histories of Kings and Chronicles, as the prophets Ezekiel and Jeremiah, and wisdom in books like Job and Ecclesiates.

Protestant Old Testament and Greek, Latin

The process by which the writings of cannon fire, and the Bibles were long, and the complexity of the variety of the Old Testament, which to this day. Approximately 5 century BCE, the Jews saw the five books of the Torah (Old Testament books of Moses), the authoritative status of the 2 century BCE, the prophets were similar role, though without quite the same level in relation to the Torah, more than the Jewish scriptures a liquid in which the different groups will see the authority of different books.

The Scriptures were translated into Greek between about 280-130 BC. Greek writings, called the Septuagint includes a number of books not found in modern Hebrew Bible (1-2 Esdras, Judith, Tobit, 1-4 Maccabees, Wisdom of Solomon, Sirah, Baruch, and numerous additions to the other books), which is loosely based on the chronology and “typology of literature” (ie the target). It continues in use to this day as the Old Testament, the Orthodox Church.

In 331, Constantine I commissioned Eusebius deliver fifty Bibles for the Church of Constantinople. Athanasius recorded Alexandrian scribes around 340 preparing Bibles for Constans. Little else is known, although there is much speculation. For example, has been speculated that this might be the motivation for the Canon set lists, and that the Codex Vaticanus and Codex Sinaiticus are examples of these Bibles. Together with the Peshitta and the Codex alexandrinus, these are the earliest preserved in the Christian Bible. There is no evidence among the canons of the first Council of Nicaea any determination of the Canon, however, Jerome (347-420), in his Prologue Judith, makes the claim that the Book of Judith was “discovered the Nicene Council, is among the calculated amount of the scriptures.”

Western Christianity, or Christianity in the western half of the Roman Empire, Latin was displaced Greek the common language of the early Christians, and about 400 CE by Pope Damasus I commissioned Jerome, a leading researcher of day, to produce updated in the Latin Bible to replace the Vetus Latina. Sometimes hundreds of years after the Septuagint (when it is disputed), the Jewish rabbis (religious scholars and teachers) is defined as the canon of the Hebrew Bible, much shorter than the canon of 24 books, and Jerome is used instead of the Greek Old Testament on the basis of his translation, relying on the “Hebraica Veritas,” or “The Truth Hebrew “. His Vulgate (eg common language) of the Old Testament became the standard Bible used in the Western church, specifically Sixto-Clementine Vulgate, the churches continued to the east, and continue, use the Septuagint.

Jerome wanted to drop all the books that do not appear in the Hebrew Bible, but St. Augustine, Bishop and another great day of the researcher, were opposed to him, and won the argument, notably at the Council of Carthage, 28 August 397 16-century Protestant reformers of the question again, and settled in Jerome, but only to their own churches: Protestant Bibles even though they are now only in books, which appear in the Jewish Bible, they have them, so that the Greek Bible. The Catholic Church, largely in reaction to this attack on the tradition, formally accepted canon, the canon of Trent, which can be seen in the following Augustine Carthaginian Councils or the Council of Rome and includes most but not all, of the Septuagint (3 Ezra 3 and 4 Maccabees is not taken into account); Anglicans after the English Civil War was a compromise position, to restore Article 39, with additional books, which was closed by Westminster confession of faith, but only for private study and reading in the churches, while the Lutherans kept them private research gathered in Appendix as the biblical Apocrypha.

Although the Hebrew, Greek and Latin versions of the Hebrew Bible’s best-known Old Testament, there were others. At the same time a lot of Septuagint was produced, the translations were made into Aramaic, the language of Jews living in Palestine and the Middle East, and likely to be the language of Jesus: this is called Tergums Aramaic, the word that means “translation”, and was used to help congregations understand the writings of the Jews . For the Aramaic Christians was a Syrian translation of the Hebrew Bible, called the Peshitta, and versions of the Coptic (the general language of Egypt, the first Christian century, descended from ancient Egypt), Ethiopic (for use in the Ethiopian Church, one of the oldest Christian churches), Armenian (Armenia, a former kingdom, now part of the modern north-east of Turkey, was the first to adopt Christianity as its official religion), and Arabic.